Methods: A literature search was performed in January 23, 2018 at the Embase, LILACS, OpenThesis, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases through January 23, 2018, using keywords related to "asthma," "pharmacist," and "children." This systematic review followed the methodologic standards recommended by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We included intervention studies on the effect of pharmacists' interventions on pediatric patients with asthma, performed in hospital or ambulatory care settings, with presenting process and outcome indicators as a result of pharmacists' interventions. The methodologic quality of the included studies was assessed independently by 2 researchers. The Cohen kappa index was used to measure the degree of agreement between the 2 investigators.
Results: The search yielded 3671 records, of which 5 were included in this review. Most of these studies were conducted in the United States (n = 2) and in outpatient clinics (n = 4). All studies described components of pharmacists' interventions. The most reported category concerning pharmacists' work process was the initial assessment of patients' conditions, with the assessment of outcomes (at baseline and follow-up) as the only category present in all studies. The most assessed outcomes at baseline were asthma control, emergency department visits, medication use and technique, and adherence to asthma therapy. At follow-up, emergency department visits were the most evaluated outcome (n = 2), and no study assessed economic outcomes. The average consultation time ranged from 20 to 45 minutes, and the number of encounters ranged from 2 to 3.
Conclusion: This study highlighted the limited number of studies, most with low quality, on the impact of the pharmacist on pediatric asthma. The most assessed outcome was the number of emergency department visits, with positive results after interventions. Heterogeneity regarding assessed outcomes and work processes was noted, which limited comparison of the results and interventions.
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