Background/objectives: To describe the predisposing factors, pathogens and outcomes in patients with clinical presumed concomitant microbial and herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) at Sydney Eye Hospital, Australia over a 5-year period.
Subjects/methods: A retrospective case review was conducted. Patients with clinical presumed concomitant microbial and HSK from 2012 to 2016 were identified from pathology and hospital coding databases. Data were extracted from the medical records. VA was converted to the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR). 'Poor' outcome was defined as final VA worse than 6/60, or decrease in VA during treatment, or presence of complication, or needed surgical intervention.
Results: 126 episodes in 121 patients were included; median age 70 years (range 18-96); 56% male. Predisposing factors included blepharitis 20/126 (16%) cases, and corneal transplantation 19 (15%). Forty-six (37%) cases had prior HSK. Coagulase-negative staphylococci 51/116 (44%), Staphylococcus aureus 11 (9%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 11 (9%) were the most common isolates. The median VA at initial visit was 1.7 logMAR (range 0.04-2.7) and at final visit, 0.98 logMAR (range 0-2.7) (P < 0.05). Complications occurred in 70 episodes: persistent epithelial defect in 38 (30%); intraocular pressure elevation in 15 (12%), and corneal perforation in 12 (10%). 'Poor' outcome was recorded in 46/75 (61%) episodes.
Conclusions: Patients with clinical presumed concomitant microbial and HSK face significant ocular morbidity and poor visual outcome. In our setting, previous HSK, corneal and ocular surface disease, were common predisposing factors and Gram-positive bacteria were the most commonly associated organisms.
© 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to The Royal College of Ophthalmologists.