The effect of borage, ginger and fennel extracts on acrylamide formation in French fries in deep and electric air frying

Food Chem. 2021 Jul 15;350:129060. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129060. Epub 2021 Feb 4.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three Lebanese wild plant extracts on acrylamide (AA) content in French fries, and to investigate the impact of air frying (AF) and deep frying (DF) techniques against AA formation. HPLC showed higher level of AA in DF (1384.79 ng/g) than in AF (163.1 ng/g). Indeed, the plant extracts of ginger, borage and fennel succeeded to decrease AA (59.67, 67.99, and 73.36% in (AF) and 21.91, 66.29 and 29.15% in (DF) respectively)in both fryers. Accordingly, borage fennel and ginger with their high scavenging activity (86.09%, 89.11% 93.67% respectively) and total phenolic contents (298.61, 117.79 and 97.36 of GAE respectively) can act as healthy beneficial pre-treatment, overall reducing AA in potato fries particularly in AF. This study was the first to reveal the importance of using plant extract in reducing AA in potato fries, a staple Lebanese food.

Keywords: Acrylamide; Borago officinalis; Foeniculum vulgare; Natural extracts; Scavenging activity; Zingiber officinale.

MeSH terms

  • Acrylamide / analysis
  • Acrylamide / chemistry*
  • Borago / chemistry*
  • Cooking / methods*
  • Electricity
  • Foeniculum / chemistry*
  • Ginger / chemistry*
  • Hot Temperature*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Solanum tuberosum / chemistry*


  • Plant Extracts
  • Acrylamide