A Comparison of Disease Severity and Outcomes in COVID-19 Cases Taking Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Versus Other Antihypertensive Drugs

Cureus. 2021 Jan 18;13(1):e12757. doi: 10.7759/cureus.12757.


Objective In this study, we aimed to compare the severity and outcomes in hypertensive patients presenting with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who were taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and those who were on other antihypertensive drugs. Methods This retrospective cohort study involved 182 hypertensive patients who presented with COVID-19 infection. The study population comprised 91 patients who were taking ACEIs/ARBs (group A) and 91 patients who were taking other antihypertensive drugs such as β-blockers (BBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), or thiazides (group B). All patients were provided the same type of treatment for the management of COVID-19. We recorded the data related to demographic and anthropometric variables as well as clinical symptoms during the treatment period. Disease severity and hospital mortality were the primary study endpoints. Results There was no significant difference in COVID-19-related outcomes between the groups except for the severity of lung infiltration on chest X-rays. There were 37 (41.1%) patients having >50% lung infiltration in group A and 53 (58.2%) in group B (p-value: 0.02). Severe disease was diagnosed in 37 (40.7%) patients in group A compared to 39 (42.7%) patients in group B (p-value: 0.76). In-hospital mortality was noted in 17 (18.7%) patients in group A and 22 (24.2%) patients in group B (p-value: 0.36). Conclusion Based on our results, we did not find any significant association between the use of ACEIs/ARBs and either the severity of COVID-19 infection necessitating admission to ICU or in-hospital mortality.

Keywords: aceis; arbs; covid-19; hypertension.