Evaluation of joint awareness after acetabular fracture: Validation of the Forgotten Joint Score according to the COSMIN checklist protocol

World J Orthop. 2021 Feb 18;12(2):69-81. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v12.i2.69.


Background: A fracture of the acetabulum is an uncommon, but serious injury. Established outcome tools do not reflect the patient's perspective after fracture of the hip joint. Originally designed for post-arthroplasty patients, the Forgotten Joint Score (FJS) is a patient-reported outcome measurement (PROM) tool evaluating the disease-specific health-related quality of life (HR-QoL).

Aim: To validate the FJS in patients after acetabular fracture.

Methods: In a prospective mono-centric cohort study, we evaluated 100 patients at mean 5.2 ± 3.6 years after a fracture of the acetabulum. The validation study followed the complete COSMIN checklist protocol. For calculation of convergent validity, we used the Tegner-Activity Scale, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, the EuroQol-5D, and a subjective rating of change as an anchor variable.

Results: We confirmed good internal consistency with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.95. With an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 (95%CI: 0.97, 0.99), test-retest reliability of the FJS was excellent. Correlation coefficients between the questionnaires were moderate to high ranging from |0.56| to |0.83| (absolute value). No relevant floor or ceiling effects occurred. Standard error of measurement was 3.2 and smallest detectable change (SDC) was 8.8. Thus, changes greater than 8.8 points between two assessments denote a real change in FJS.

Conclusion: The FJS is a valid and reliable tool for evaluation of patient-reported outcome in posttraumatic condition after acetabular fracture. The SDC indicating a real clinical improvement was 8.8 points in the FJS. We could confirm responsiveness of the FJS and found no relevant floor- or ceiling effects.

Keywords: Acetabulum fracture; COSMIN checklist; Forgotten Joint Score; Hip joint; Patient reported outcome measurement; Validation study.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial