Objective: Lower limb complications are major adverse events in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). These complications can lead to morbidity, disability, reduced quality of life, and higher health care costs. We sought to determine how interim lower limb complications modify the subsequent risk of progression to kidney failure, all-cause mortality before kidney failure, and cardiovascular (CV) events in a cohort of patients with CKD stages G3 to G5.
Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study using patient-level data obtained by linking several administrative databases from Manitoba, Canada. We used Fine and Gray regression models for the primary outcomes of (1) kidney failure adjusted for the competing risk of all-cause mortality, (2) death before kidney failure, and (3) cardiovascular-related hospitalization with the competing risk of non-CV death.
Results: A total of 92,618 patients were included in the final cohort, with a median follow-up time of 2.56 years. Compared with patients who did not experience an interim lower limb complication, there was a higher risk of kidney failure (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.10-3.00), all-cause mortality before kidney failure (adjusted HR 2.73, 95% CI 2.55-2.92), and CV events (adjusted HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.90-2.38).
Conclusions: Interim lower limb complications are associated with an increased risk of kidney failure, all-cause mortality before kidney failure, and cardiovascular-related hospitalization. Clinical trials of screening and treatment strategies for patients with CKD at risk for lower limb complications may help determine optimal strategies to manage this risk.
Keywords: CKD; diabetic foot; peripheral arterial disease; renal dialysis; renal insufficiency.
© 2021 Published by Elsevier, Inc., on behalf of the International Society of Nephrology.