Background: Controversy exists regarding the optimal antibiotic regimen for use in hospitalized children with staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS). Various regimens may confer toxin suppression and/or additional coverage for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) or methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA).
Objectives: To describe antibiotic regimens in hospitalized children with SSSS and examine the association between antistaphylococcal antibiotic regimens and patient outcomes.
Design/methods: Retrospective cohort study of children hospitalized with SSSS using the Pediatric Health Information System database (2011-2016). Children who received clindamycin monotherapy, clindamycin plus MSSA coverage (eg, nafcillin), or clindamycin plus MRSA coverage (eg, vancomycin) were included. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay (LOS); secondary outcomes were treatment failure and cost. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to compare outcomes among antibiotic groups.
Results: Of 1,259 children included, 828 children received the most common antistaphylococcal antibiotic regimens: clindamycin monotherapy (47%), clindamycin plus MSSA coverage (33%), and clindamycin plus MRSA coverage (20%). Children receiving clindamycin plus MRSA coverage had higher illness severity (44%) compared with clindamycin monotherapy (28%) and clindamycin plus MSSA (32%) (P =.001). In adjusted analyses, LOS and treatment failure did not differ among the 3 regimens (P =.42 and P =.26, respectively). Cost was significantly lower for children receiving clindamycin monotherapy and highest in those receiving clindamycin plus MRSA coverage (mean, $4,839 vs $5,348, respectively; P <.001).
Conclusions: In children with SSSS, the addition of MSSA or MRSA coverage to clindamycin monotherapy was associated with increased cost and no incremental difference in clinical outcomes.