Cardiogenic shock due to predominantly right ventricular failure complicating acute myocardial infarction

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2021 Mar 5;10(1):33-39. doi: 10.1093/ehjacc/zuaa010.

Abstract

Aims: The objective was to describe patient characteristics, interventions, and outcome in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (AMICS), due to predominantly right ventricular (RV) failure after revascularization, in comparison with patients suffering from left ventricular (LV) failure as these patients remain sparsely characterized.

Methods and results: From 2010 to 2017, consecutive AMICS patients admitted to either of two tertiary heart centres, covering 3.9 million citizens, corresponding to two-thirds of the Danish population, were identified and individually reviewed through patient records. A total of 1716 AMICS patients were identified, of which 1482 underwent acute revascularization and included for analysis. Hereof, 101 (7%) patients developed cardiogenic shock due to predominantly RV failure, while 1381 (93%) had significant LV involvement. Female sex was the only demographic factor associated with RV failure (35% vs. 25%, P = 0.01). Despite having a preserved LV ejection fraction, patients with predominantly RV failure were comparable to patients with LV involvement, in terms of haemodynamic and metabolic profile, here among variables commonly used in the cardiogenic shock definition including blood pressure (82 mmHg vs. 83 mmHg, P = 0.90) and lactate level (5.7 mmol/L vs. 5.4 mmol/L, P = 0.70). Patients with RV AMICS had significantly lower 30-day mortality than LV AMICS, and this result persisted after multivariable adjustment (RV vs. LV; hazard ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.41-0.92, P = 0.01).

Conclusion: In contemporary AMICS patients undergoing revascularization, patients with predominantly RV failure had comparable haemodynamics and metabolic derangement on admission compared to patients with LV failure but was associated with female sex and a significantly lower 30-day mortality.

Keywords: Acute heart failure; Acute myocardial infarction; Cardiogenic shock; Right ventricular failure.