Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death in women diagnosed with gynecological cancers. It is also the fifth most frequent cause of death in women, in general. Most of the cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage, which leads to poor outcomes of this disease. The existing screening tests have a low predictive value contributing further to this misery. Detailed gynecological evaluation along with transvaginal ultrasound and laboratory marker like cancer antigen-125 (CA-125) assay are the key early detection strategies which have shown no significant beneficial effect in the morbidity or mortality of this cancer.
The standard line of care treatment includes surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy; however, anti-angiogenic bevacizumab and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have gained momentum in the management of this gynecological malignancy in the past decade.
A high rate of recurrence following the initial treatment has been observed. Most of these relapsed cases are less curable and known to have an increased incidence of treatment failures. Hence, effective prevention and detection strategies and new treatment modalities based on a better understanding of molecular characterization of this cancer are the need of the hour. This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors of ovarian cancer and also highlights the evaluation and multidisciplinary approach in the management of this condition, along with a discussion of a few of the recent ongoing trials.
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