Transition to clean household energy through an application of integrated model: Ensuring sustainability for better health, climate and environment

Sci Total Environ. 2021 Feb 6;775:145657. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145657. Online ahead of print.


Sustained use and adoption of clean cooking fuels have become an important concern for developing countries due to the enormous burden of diseases attributable to household air pollution (HAP). The transition and adoption of clean household energy involve various socio-economic, behavioral, and technological barriers at different community levels. Hence, the present paper aims to scrutinize the factors, key determinants, and other interventions among rural households that limit clean cookstoves' sustained uses. The study proposes an integrated model to enhance clean cooking fuel uptake and uses based on the available evidence. The health, climate and environmental factors were identified as the key to trigger the adoption of clean cooking fuel alternatives. The model comprises the integration of components for targeted clean fuel policy interventions and promotes green recovery. The elements include Knowledge, Housing characteristics, Awareness, Interventions, Willingness to pay, Adoption, Lower emissions and Gender Equality (THE KHAIWAL model) to ascertain the intervention focus regions. Integration of model components in policy implementation will promote clean household energy to reduce emissions, leading to improve quality of life, good health, women empowerment, better air quality and climate.

Keywords: Clean energy barriers; Green recovery; PMUY; Socio-cultural factors; Solid biomass fuel; THE KHAIWAL model.

Publication types

  • Review