The prevention of osteoporosis and sarcopenia in older adults

J Am Geriatr Soc. 2021 May;69(5):1388-1398. doi: 10.1111/jgs.17043. Epub 2021 Feb 23.


Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are common in older adults. Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Bone fractures can result in changes in posture, pain, the need for surgical repair and functional impairment. Sarcopenia is the progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and/or physical performance. Older adults with sarcopenia experience increased risk of frailty, disability, hospitalizations, mortality, and a reduced quality of life. In this narrative review we provide guidance regarding the prevention of both osteoporosis and sarcopenia, including interventions that prevent both conditions from occurring, recommended screening and treatment to prevent progression.

Keywords: older adult; osteoporosis; prevention; sarcopenia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoporosis / prevention & control*
  • Sarcopenia / prevention & control*