Antibiotic Resistance in Pseudomonas spp. Through the Urban Water Cycle

Curr Microbiol. 2021 Apr;78(4):1227-1237. doi: 10.1007/s00284-021-02389-w. Epub 2021 Feb 24.


Selection and dissemination of resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) require a deeper understanding since antibiotics are permanently released to the environment. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the phenotypic resistance of 499 isolates of Pseudomonas spp. from urban water sources, and the prevalence of 20 ARGs within those isolates. Resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, quinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines was mainly observed in the hospital effluent, municipal wastewater and river water downstream the city. Resistant strains were frequently identified as P. aeruginosa and P. putida. P. aeruginosa isolates were mostly resistant to cefepime, ceftazidime, imipenem, and gentamycin, while P. putida strains were especially resistant to piperacillin-tazobactam. ARGs such as blaTEM-1, blaSHV-1, blaPER-1, blaAmpC, blaVIM-1, PstS, qnrA, qnrB, ermB, tetA, tetB and tetC have been detected. The blaAmpC gene was found in P. aeruginosa, while blaTEM-1 and blaPER-1 genes were found in P. putida. Class 1 integron integrase gene was found in 6.81% of the Pseudomonas isolates.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial
  • Integrons / genetics
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / genetics
  • Pseudomonas* / genetics
  • Wastewater
  • Water Cycle*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Waste Water