Background Patients with recurring heart failure (HF) following cardiac resynchronization therapy fare poorly. Their management is undecided. We tested remote hemodynamic-guided pharmacotherapy. Methods and Results We evaluated cardiac resynchronization therapy subjects included in the CHAMPION (CardioMEMS Heart Sensor Allows Monitoring of Pressure to Improve Outcomes in New York Heart Association Class III Heart Failure Patients) trial, which randomized patients with persistent New York Heart Association Class III symptoms and ≥1 HF hospitalization in the previous 12 months to remotely managed pulmonary artery (PA) pressure-guided management (treatment) or usual HF care (control). Diuretics and/or vasodilators were adjusted conventionally in control and included remote PA pressure information in treatment. Annualized HF hospitalization rates, changes in PA pressures over time (analyzed by area under the curve), changes in medications, and quality of life (Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire scores) were assessed. Patients who had cardiac resynchronization therapy (n=190, median implant duration 755 days) at enrollment had poor hemodynamic function (cardiac index 2.00±0.59 L/min per m2), high comorbidity burden (67% had secondary pulmonary hypertension, 61% had estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2), and poor Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire scores (57±24). During 18 months randomized follow-up, HF hospitalizations were 30% lower in treatment (n=91, 62 events, 0.46 events/patient-year) versus control patients (n=99, 93 events, 0.68 events/patient-year) (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51-0.96; P=0.028). Treatment patients had more medication up-/down-titrations (847 versus 346 in control, P<0.001), mean PA pressure reduction (area under the curve -413.2±123.5 versus 60.1±88.0 in control, P=0.002), and quality of life improvement (Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire decreased -13.5±23 versus -4.9±24.8 in control, P=0.006). Conclusions Remote hemodynamic-guided adjustment of medical therapies decreased PA pressures and the burden of HF symptoms and hospitalizations in patients with recurring Class III HF and hospitalizations, beyond the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00531661.
Keywords: cardiac resynchronization therapy; heart failure; hemodynamic; hemodynamic monitoring; pulmonary artery pressure; remote monitoring.