Recessive VAMP1 mutations associated with severe congenital myasthenic syndromes - A recognizable clinical phenotype

Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2021 Mar:31:54-60. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2021.02.005. Epub 2021 Feb 16.


Three unrelated girls, all born to consanguineous parents had respiratory distress, severe hypotonia at birth along with prominent fatigable muscle weakness and characteristic myopathic facies. In addition, patient 1 had fatigable ptosis, ophthalmoparesis and profound bulbar weakness and required nasogastric feeding from birth. A feeding gastrostomy was inserted at 9 months of age. She continued to have severe bulbar and limb weakness with dropped head at 5 years of age. Patient 2 and 3 did not have ocular signs at the time of initial presentation during infancy and at 2 years of age respectively. None of the patients attained independent walking. Patient 3, currently aged 16 years continues to be wheelchair bound and has only mild non-progressive bulbar weakness with normal cognitive development. Muscle biopsy in patient 1 and 3 showed predominant myopathic features admixed with small sized (atrophic/hypoplastic) fibres. Next generation sequencing confirmed the presence of a homozygous loss of function VAMP1 mutations in all three patients: A single nucleotide deletion resulting in frameshift: c.66delT (p.Gly23AlafsTer6) in patient 1 and nonsense mutations c.202C>T (pArg68Ter) and c.97C>T (p.Arg33Ter) in patient 2 and 3 respectively. Minimal but definite improvement in muscle power with pyridostigmine was reported in patients 1 and 2. This is the first report of VAMP1 mutations causing CMS from the Indian subcontinent, describing a clinically recognizable severe form of VAMP1-related CMS and highlighting the need for a strong index of suspicion for early genetic diagnosis of potentially treatable CMS phenotypes.

Keywords: Autosomal recessive; Congenital myasthenic syndrome; India; Pre-synaptic defect; VAMP1.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Consanguinity
  • Female
  • Homozygote
  • Humans
  • India
  • Infant
  • Mutation
  • Myasthenic Syndromes, Congenital / diagnosis
  • Myasthenic Syndromes, Congenital / genetics*
  • Pedigree
  • Phenotype
  • Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 1 / genetics*


  • VAMP1 protein, human
  • Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 1