[The effectiveness and safety of subcutaneous immunotherapy for inhalable allergens in patients with respiratory allergies after one year of treatment]

Rev Alerg Mex. Oct-Dec 2020;67(4):309-315. doi: 10.29262/ram.v67i4.758.
[Article in Spanish]

Abstract

Background: Allergen-specific immunotherapy is an important therapeutic modality for the management of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma.

Objective: To assess the effectiveness and safety of allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy in patients with respiratory allergies at the University Hospital of Puebla after twelve months of treatment.

Methods: A longitudinal, sequential, analytic, quasi-experimental, prolective study. The study was carried out for twelve months with patients of both sexes, aged four to sixty-five years, diagnosed with asthma and/or rhinitis, and with sensitization to aeroallergens. The CARAT and Portnoy questionnaires were collected every two months in order to assess the effectiveness and safety respectively.

Results: 47 patients were included: 37 (78.7 %) of them were female. The average age was 29.8 years. 76.6 % of them were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis, and 23.4 % of them were diagnosed with both asthma and allergic rhinitis. The comparison of averages of the initial CARAT questionnaire against the final average by means of a student's t-test showed a t-value of -8.86 and a p-value of < 0.05. A total frequency of local adverse reactions of 19 % and systemic adverse reactions of 2.1 % was reported after 6 and 12 months of treatment.

Conclusions: The assessed scheme of immunotherapy, derived from the Mexican clinical practice guidelines of immunotherapy 2011, is effective with a desirable safety profile.

Antecedentes: La inmunoterapia específica con alérgenos es una importante modalidad terapéutica para el manejo de la rinitis y asma alérgica. Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de la inmunoterapia subcutánea con alérgenos en pacientes con alergia respiratoria del Hospital Universitario de Puebla posterior a 12 meses de tratamiento. Métodos: Estudio longitudinal, secuencial, analítico, cuasiexperimental, prolectivo. Durante 12 meses se incluyeron pacientes con asma o rinitis, sensibilizados a aeroalérgenos, de cuatro a 65 años y de ambos sexos; bimensualmente se recolectaron los cuestionarios CARAT y Portnoy para evaluar la eficacia y seguridad, respectivamente. Resultados: Se incluyeron 47 pacientes, 37 (78.7 %) mujeres. La edad promedio fue de 29.8 años. El 76.6 % tuvo diagnóstico de rinitis alérgica y 23.4 % de asma y rinitis alérgica. Al comparar el promedio del CARAT inicial contra el promedio final mediante prueba de t de Student se obtuvo un valor de –8.86 y p < 0.05. Se reportó una frecuencia total de reacciones adversas locales de 19 % y de reacciones adversas sistémicas de 2.1 % a los seis y 12 meses del tratamiento. Conclusiones: El esquema de inmunoterapia evaluado, derivado de la Guía Mexicana de Práctica Clínica de Inmunoterapia 2011, es eficaz con un conveniente perfil de seguridad.

Keywords: Allergen immunotherapy; Allergic rhinitis; Asthma; Treatment effectiveness.

Publication types

  • English Abstract