[Hemophagocytic syndrome at a pediatric specialty hospital. Underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis]

Rev Alerg Mex. Oct-Dec 2020;67(4):316-328. doi: 10.29262/ram.v67i4.759.
[Article in Spanish]

Abstract

Background: The hemophagocytic syndrome is a serious complication of several systemic illnesses.

Objective: To define the characteristics of the hemophagocytic syndrome at a pediatric specialty hospital in Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico; incidences, underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis, associated conditions, treatment, and prognosis were included.

Methods: 214 cases of probable hemophagocytic syndrome that were seen between January 2011 and May 2019 were analyzed. 26 patients diagnosed with hemophagocytic syndrome and 188 cases with suspicion of this entity and/or ferritin > 500 ug/L were included. The cases that met four or more criteria of the HFS (Histiocyte Society, 2004) were included in this study.

Results: Thirty-five cases were validated (fourteen were previously diagnosed, nine had suspicion, and twelve had ferritin > 500 μg/L). Neither twelve out of 26 of the cases that were previously diagnosed (46.2 % overdiagnosed). Of the 35 validated cases, 21 hadn’t been diagnosed (60 % underdiagnosed) met the diagnostic criteria of the HFS. The annual occurrence was of 2.0/1000 egresses. The Epstein-Barr virus was involved in 42 % of the cases. The overall mortality was of 80 %.

Conclusions: Hemophagocytic syndrome had been significantly underdiagnosed and overdiagnosed at the analyzed hospital. The clinical features allow early suspicion, diagnosis, and treatment. Specific and non-specific illnesses that were associated to hemophagocytic syndrome were identified.

Antecedentes: El síndrome hemofagocítico es una complicación grave que se observa en diversos padecimientos sistémicos. Objetivo: Conocer las características del síndrome hemofagocítico en el Hospital de Especialidades Pediátricas de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México; se incluyó incidencia, subdiagnóstico y sobrediagnóstico, padecimientos asociados, tratamiento y pronóstico. Métodos: Se analizaron 214 casos probables de síndrome hemofagocítico atendidos entre enero de 2011 y mayo de 2019. Se incluyeron 26 pacientes con diagnóstico de síndrome hemofagocítico y 188 en los que se sospechaba esta entidad o con ferritina > 500 μg/L. Los casos en los que se cumplieron cuatro o más criterios de la Sociedad del Histiocito fueron incluidos en el estudio. Resultados: Se validaron 35 casos (14 con diagnóstico previo, nueve con sospecha y 12 con ferritina > 500 μg/L). No cumplieron con los criterios de la Sociedad del Histiocito, 12 casos diagnosticados previamente (sobrediagnóstico de 46.2 %). De los 35 validados, 21 no habían sido diagnosticados (subdiagnóstico de 60 %). La incidencia anual fue de 2.0/1000 egresos. El virus Epstein-Barr estuvo involucrado en 42 % de los casos. La mortalidad representó 80 %. Conclusiones: El síndrome hemofagocítico fue subdiagnosticado y sobrediagnosticado en el hospital estudiado. Las características clínicas permiten sospecharlo, diagnosticarlo y tratarlo oportunamente. Se identificaron padecimientos específicos y no específicos asociados a síndrome hemofagocítico.

Keywords: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; Hemophagocytic syndrome; Immune chaos; Macrophage activation syndrome.

Publication types

  • English Abstract