[The neurology of COVID-19]

Rev Alerg Mex. Oct-Dec 2020;67(4):338-349. doi: 10.29262/ram.v67i4.828.
[Article in Spanish]

Abstract

The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are reminiscent of those of acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by cytokine release syndrome and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis that is observed in patients with other coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Neurologists face the challenge of assessing patients with pre-existing neurological diseases who have contracted SARS-CoV-2, patients with COVID-19 who present neurological emergencies, and patients who are carriers of the virus and have developed secondary neurological complications, either during the course of the disease or after it. Some authors and recent literature reports suggest that the presence of neurological manifestations in patients who are carriers of SARS-CoV-2 may be associated with a greater severity of the disease.

Las manifestaciones clínicas de COVID-19 recuerdan las del síndrome de insuficiencia respiratoria aguda inducido por el síndrome de liberación de citocinas y la linfohistiocitosis hemofagocitica observada en pacientes con otros coronavirus como SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV. Los neurólogos tienen el reto de evaluar pacientes con enfermedades neurológicas preexistentes que contraen SARS-CoV-2, pacientes con COVID-19 que presentan emergencias neurológicas y pacientes portadores del virus que desarrollan complicaciones neurológicas secundarias, durante el curso de la enfermedad o posterior a la misma. Algunos autores y reportes en la literatura recientes sugieren que las manifestaciones neurológicas en pacientes portadores de SARS-CoV-2 pueden asociarse con mayor gravedad de la enfermedad.

Keywords: Acute respiratory distress syndrome; COVID-19; Cytokine storm; Neurological disorders; SARS-CoV-2.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity
  • Anosmia / etiology
  • Blood-Brain Barrier
  • Brain Ischemia / etiology
  • COVID-19 / complications*
  • COVID-19 / immunology
  • Cytokine Release Syndrome / etiology*
  • Cytokine Release Syndrome / immunology
  • Encephalitis, Viral / etiology
  • Headache / etiology
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Leukocytes / immunology
  • Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic / etiology*
  • Nervous System Diseases / etiology*
  • Organ Specificity
  • SARS-CoV-2*
  • Viral Tropism