Sortilin (also known as neurotensin receptor 3) is a multitasking protein implicated in numerous pathophysiological processes, including cancer development, cardiovascular impairment, Alzheimer-type dementia, and depression. Although the definitive role of sortilin in human solid and hematological malignancies has been evidenced, few articles reviewed the task. The aim of the current review is to unravel the mechanisms by which sortilin controls oncogenicity and cancer progression; and also to summarize and discuss the original data obtained from international research laboratories on this topic. Questions on how sortilin is involving in the impairment of cell junctions, in exosomes composition and release, as well as in the regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor trafficking are also responded. In addition, we provide a special focus on the regulatory role of sortilin in signal transduction by either neurotrophins or neurotensin in normal and malignant cells. The relevance of sortilin with normal and cancer stem cells is also discussed. The last section provides a general overview of sortilin applications as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in the context of cancer detection. Finally, we comment on the future research aspects in which the field of cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy might be developed.
Keywords: cancer; function; neurotensin receptor 3; role; sortilin; tumor.
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