HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS profiling and therapeutic effects of Schinus terebinthifolius and Schinus molle fruits: investigation of their antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties

Inflammopharmacology. 2021 Apr;29(2):467-481. doi: 10.1007/s10787-021-00791-1. Epub 2021 Feb 26.


The aim of the current work was to study the phytochemical variability among Schinus terebinthifolius (STE) and Schinus molle (SME) fruit extracts. The in vitro antioxidant, antihemolytic, antidiabetic, and macromolecule damage protective activities, as well as, the in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive capacities were assessed. Using the HPLC-ESI-QTOF/MS analysis, the chemical profile of fruit extract varied between S. terebinthifolius (30 compounds) and S. molle (16 compounds). The major compound was masazino-flavanone (5774.98 and 1177.65 μg/g sample for STE and SME, respectively). The investigations highlighted significant antioxidant proprieties when using ABTS radical (IC50; 0.12 and 0.14 mg/ml for STE and SME, respectively), superoxide (IC50; 0.17 and 0.22 mg/ml for STE and SME, respectively) and hydrogen peroxide (IC50; 014 and 0.17 mg/ml for STE and SME, respectively). In addition, STE and SME proved preventive effects against H2O2-induced hemolysis (IC50; 0.22 and 0.14 mg/ml for STE and SME, respectively). The in vitro antidiabetic effect revealed that STE and SME exhibited important inhibitory effects against α-amylase (IC50; 0.13 and 0.19 mg/ml for STE and SME, respectively) and α-glycosidase (IC50; 0.21 and 0.18 mg/ml for STE and SME, respectively) when compared with acarbose. Furthermore, the extracts showed potent inhibitory activity against AAPH-induced plasmid DNA damage, and protein oxidation. In vivo study revealed that STE and SME presented interesting antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory capacities. All observed effects highlighted the potential application of Schinus fruit extract in food and pharmaceutical industries against ROS-induced damage.

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory; Antidiabetic antinociceptive; DNA; HPLC–DAD–ESI–MS/MS; Protein; Schinus molle; Schinus terebinthifolius.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Anacardiaceae / chemistry*
  • Analgesics / administration & dosage
  • Analgesics / isolation & purification
  • Analgesics / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / administration & dosage
  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Fruit
  • Hemolysis / drug effects
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / isolation & purification
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology
  • Inhibitory Concentration 50
  • Male
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry


  • Analgesics
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Plant Extracts