Outcomes for Australian children with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with blinatumomab

Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2021 May;68(5):e28922. doi: 10.1002/pbc.28922. Epub 2021 Feb 26.


We report on the Australian experience of blinatumomab for treatment of 24 children with relapsed/refractory precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) and high-risk genetics, resulting in a minimal residual disease (MRD) response rate of 58%, 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 39% and 2-year overall survival of 63%. In total, 83% (n = 20/24) proceeded to haematopoietic stem cell transplant, directly after blinatumomab (n = 12) or following additional salvage therapy (n = 8). Four patients successfully received CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy despite prior blinatumomab exposure. Inferior 2-year PFS was associated with MRD positivity (20%, n = 15) and in KMT2A-rearranged infants (15%, n = 9). Our findings highlight that not all children with relapsed/refractory B-ALL respond to blinatumomab and factors such as blast genotype may affect prognosis.

Keywords: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; blinatumomab; paediatric; refractory; relapse.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Bispecific / therapeutic use*
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Australia
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy*
  • Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antibodies, Bispecific
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • blinatumomab