There is a strong and ever-growing body of evidence regarding the use of pharmacogenomics to inform cardiovascular pharmacology. However, there is no common position taken by international cardiovascular societies to unite diverse availability, interpretation and application of such data, nor is there recognition of the challenges of variation in clinical practice between countries within Europe. Aside from the considerable barriers to implementing pharmacogenomic testing and the complexities of clinically actioning results, there are differences in the availability of resources and expertise internationally within Europe. Diverse legal and ethical approaches to genomic testing and clinical therapeutic application also require serious thought. As direct-to-consumer genomic testing becomes more common, it can be anticipated that data may be brought in by patients themselves, which will require critical assessment by the clinical cardiovascular prescriber. In a modern, pluralistic and multi-ethnic Europe, self-identified race/ethnicity may not be concordant with genetically detected ancestry and thus may not accurately convey polymorphism prevalence. Given the broad relevance of pharmacogenomics to areas such as thrombosis and coagulation, interventional cardiology, heart failure, arrhythmias, clinical trials, and policy/regulatory activity within cardiovascular medicine, as well as to genomic and pharmacology subspecialists, this position statement attempts to address these issues at a wide-ranging level.
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