The epidemic of diabetes mellitus (DM) necessitates the development of novel therapeutic and preventative strategies to attenuate complications of this debilitating disease. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a frequent disorder affecting individuals diagnosed with DM characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic and systolic dysfunction and myocardial fibrosis in the absence of other heart diseases. Progression of DCM is associated with impaired cardiac insulin metabolic signaling, increased oxidative stress, impaired mitochondrial and cardiomyocyte calcium metabolism, and inflammation. Various non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), as well as their target genes are implicated in the complex pathophysiology of DCM. It has been demonstrated that miRNAs and lncRNAs play an important role in maintaining homeostasis through regulation of multiple genes, thus they attract substantial scientific interest as biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and as a potential therapeutic strategy in DM complications. This article will review the different miRNAs and lncRNA studied in the context of DM, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the contribution of pathophysiological mechanisms including inflammatory response, oxidative stress, apoptosis, hypertrophy and fibrosis to the development of DCM .
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus type 2; Diabetic cardiomyopathy; Inflammation; LncRNA; Novel biomarker; Novel therapy; Novel treatment; Oxidative stress; miRNA.