Introduction: Zygomatic fractures are usually accompanied with neural complications, which are routinely treated by surgery or medication. However, photobiomodulation has been proven as a non-invasive method with better results in nerve's regeneration and repair. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the healing effect of photobiomodulation on neurosensory defect after facial trauma.
Patients and methods: In this parallel controlled clinical trial, 35 control cases and 36 patients with zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures as well as the sustained infraorbital nerve paresthesia were included. Afterward, Laser irradiation was applied using a GaAlAs diode laser (810 nm, 27 J/cm2, 200 mW) on 12 points on malar area of paresthesia during 12 sessions within six weeks. Neurosensory evaluations were performed in four sessions as follows: at baseline, the end of treatment, one month, and three months after the last session of irradiation, which were achieved through three tests including visual analogue scales (VAS) for general sensitivity, two-point discrimination, and pain discrimination. Repeated measure ANOVA, independent t-test, and Chi-square test were used for comparing time trends, each time point, and gender, respectively. P-values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.
Results: The patients and controls were matched in both terms of age and gender. Baseline results showed non-significant differences between the two groups based on the VAS, pain, and two-point discrimination. Moreover, for VAS scale, some significant differences were observed between the groups by passing "one month and three months from therapy". Pain and two-point discriminations showed a significant difference between the intervention and control groups in "one month after therapy" and "at the end of the therapy, one month after therapy, and three months after therapy", respectively.
Conclusion: Photobiomodulation could be considered as an effective treatment option for post-traumatic neurosensory disturbance of facial area in terms of VAS, pain and two-point discrimination, even if not performed early after trauma.
Keywords: Nerve repair; Neurosensory disturbance; Photobiomodulation; Zygomatic fractures.
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