Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric performance of the patient- and parent-reported measures in the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) Standard Set for Cleft Care, and to identify ways of improving concept coverage.
Methods: Data from 714 patients with cleft lip and/or palate, aged 8 to 9, 10 to 12.5, and 22 years were collected between November 2015 and April 2019 at Erasmus University Medical Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Duke Children's Hospital, and from participating sites in the CLEFT-Q Phase 3 study. The Standard Set includes 9 CLEFT-Q scales, the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) questionnaire, the Child Oral Health Impact Profile-Oral Symptoms Scale (COHIP-OSS), and the Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS). Targeting, item-fit statistics, thresholds for item responses, and measurement precision (PSI) were analyzed using Rasch measurement theory.
Results: The proportion of the sample to score within each instruments range of measurement varied from 69% (ICS) to 92% (CLEFT-Q teeth and COHIP-OSS). Specific problems with individual items within the NOSE and COHIP-OSS questionnaires were noted, such as poor item fit to the Rasch model and disordered thresholds (6 of 10). Reliability measured with PSI was above 0.82 for the ICS and all but one CLEFT-Q scale (speech distress). PSIs were lowest for the COHIP-OSS (0.43) and NOSE questionnaire (0.35).
Conclusion: The patient- and parent-reported components within the facial appearance, psychosocial function, and speech domains are valid measures; however, the facial function and oral health domains are not sufficiently covered by the CLEFT-Q eating and drinking, NOSE, and COHIP-OSS, and these questionnaires may not be accurate enough to stratify cleft-related outcomes.
Keywords: ICHOM; Rasch measurement theory; cleft lip and palate; patient-reported outcomes; psychometric performance.
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