Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme II or ACE2 is an integral membrane protein present on many types of cells, including vascular endothelial cells and lung alveolar epithelial cells. This receptor serves as the entry point for SARS-coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs), including a novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV. Limited availability of these receptors can thwart cellular entry of this virus.
Methods: We tested the effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) on cellular expression of ACE2 at the protein and RNA levels in human small alveolar epithelial cells and microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, we investigated whether combinations of ascorbic acid with other natural compounds can affect ACE2 expression.
Results: The results show that ascorbic acid itself has moderate but consistent lowering effects on ACE2 expression at the cellular, protein, and RNA levels. Some natural compounds were effective in lowering ACE2 cellular expression, with the highest inhibitory effects observed for baicalin (75%) and theaflavin (50%). Significantly, combinations of these and other test compounds with ascorbic acid further decreased ACE2 expression. The highest impact of ascorbate on ACE2 expression was noted when combined with theaflavin (decrease from 50% to 87%), zinc (decrease from 22% to 62%), and with 10-undecenoic acid (from 18% to 53%). Ascorbic acid showed moderate additional benefits in decreasing ACE2 expression when combined with N-acetylcysteine and baicalin.
Conclusion: Our study provides valuable experimental confirmation of the efficacy of micronutrients in controlling ACE2 expression-the coronavirus cellular "entry" point. It further validates the importance of nutrient interactions in various aspects of cellular metabolism and in considering potential therapeutic applications of nutrient-based approaches. The study shows that ascorbic acid and its combination with some natural compounds could be included in developing preventive and therapeutic approaches toward the current pandemic.
Keywords: ACE2; Ascorbic acid; COVID-19; coronavirus; natural compounds.
© The Author(s) 2021.