High temperature induced changes in quality and yield parameters of tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) and similarity coefficients among genotypes using SSR markers

Heliyon. 2021 Feb 3;7(2):e05988. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e05988. eCollection 2021 Feb.

Abstract

High temperature induced by climatic fluctuations are an important threat for plant growth, development and quality of agricultural produces. Adaptableness to environmental changes generally derives from a large set of genetic traits affecting physio-morphological, biochemical and agronomic parameters. Therefore, the identification of genotypes with higher yield and good quality parameters at high temperatures is becoming increasingly necessary for future breeding programs. Here, we analyzed the performance of different tomato genotypes grown under elevated temperatures in terms of yield and nutritional quality of the fruit. High temperature stress was induced from flower initiation to maturity stage by keeping the pots in a temperature controlled green house facility for 45 days. The quality and yield parameters were taken at the harvesting stage. Starch and soluble sugar concentration in the leaves of tomato genotypes showed significant reduction in its amount under heat stress. Titrable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS) and ascorbic acid content of tomato fruits were highest under high temperature conditions compared to ambient condition but lycopene content decreased with rise in temperature. The yield attributes viz., number of fruits/plant, fruit set %, average fruit weight (g), yield per plant (g/plant) were significantly lower for Arka Saurabh, Arka Rakshak and Pusa Rohini when compared to other genotypes under study. Molecular characterization of selected 22 tomato genotypes were assessed using 25 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by the unweighted neighbour-joining method (UPGMA) using NTSYSpc cluster analysis software. The Jaccard's similarity matrix was constructed using the SIMQUAL method using UPGMA algorithm in NTSYSpc. Jaccard's similarity matrix among these tomato genotypes ranged from a minimum of 0.22 to a maximum of 1 with an average genetic similarity of 0.67. Hence this study has importance in identifying genotypes that could maintain good quality and higher yield under high temperature condition.

Keywords: High temperature stress; Quality traits; SSR markers; Tomato; Yield traits.