Parietal aplasia and hypophosphatasia in a child harboring a novel mutation in RUNX2 and a likely pathogenic variant in TNSALP

Bone. 2021 May:146:115904. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2021.115904. Epub 2021 Feb 27.


Cleidocranial dysplasia is a dominantly inherited skeletal dysplasia resulting from inherited or spontaneous mutations of Runt-related transcription factor 2 gene (RUNX2). It represents a clinical continuum typically characterized by wide calvarial sutures, clavicular hypoplasia and dental abnormalities. CDD has been rarely associated with skeletal and biochemical features that mimic hypophosphatasia. We report clinical, biochemical and molecular profile of a 3-year-old female with CCD, presented in utero with large cranial defects. She displayed severe parietal dysplasia, wide cranial sutures, clavicular abnormalities and biochemical features of hypophospatasia (HHP). She was preliminary diagnosed with benign perinatal HHP, harboring a likely pathogenic heterozygous TNSALP variant (p.Ser181Leu) inherited by the mother, who also displayed low levels of ALP. Asfotase alfa was introduced for a six-month-period with rather positive impact on cranial ossification. Nevertheless, focal skeletal disease (cranium and clavicles) and absence of clinical symptoms in the mother, carrier of the same genetic variant, posed diagnosis into question and further genetic analysis detected the novel spontaneous frameshift mutation c.1191delC (p.Phe398Leufs*86) in RUNX2 gene, establishing the CCD diagnosis. Although genotype-phenotype correlations are difficult, p.Phe398Leufs*86 appears to be associated with a severe cranial phenotype and absence of parietal bones, similarly to other adjacent frameshift/splicing mutations. The TNSALP variant (p.Ser181Leu) may contributed to patient's final phenotype, as well as to maternal low ALP levels. However, since low ALP levels have been also reported in few CCD patients with no alterations in TNSALP gene, studies to elucidate RUNX2 and TNSALP interactions could shed more light on differential diagnosis between CCD and HHP, CCD appropriate therapy and genetic counselling. ACCESSION NUMBER: (SUB8185506).

Keywords: Asfotase alfa; C-terminous domain; Cleidocranial dysplasia; Hypophosphatasia; Novel mutation; RUNX2.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • Cleidocranial Dysplasia* / genetics
  • Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit / genetics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypophosphatasia* / genetics
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Phenotype


  • Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit
  • RUNX2 protein, human