The novel cystatin C, lactate, interleukin-6, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (CLIP)-based mortality risk score in cardiogenic shock after acute myocardial infarction

Eur Heart J. 2021 Jun 21;42(24):2344-2352. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehab110.

Abstract

Background : Cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) still reaches excessively high mortality rates. This analysis is aimed to develop a new easily applicable biomarker-based risk score.

Methods and results : A biomarker-based risk score for 30-day mortality was developed from 458 patients with CS complicating AMI included in the randomized CULPRIT-SHOCK trial. The selection of relevant predictors and the coefficient estimation for the prognostic model were performed by a penalized multivariate logistic regression analysis. Validation was performed internally, internally externally as well as externally in 163 patients with CS included in the randomized IABP-SHOCK II trial. Blood samples were obtained at randomization. The two trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01927549 and NCT00491036), are closed to new participants, and follow-up is completed. Out of 58 candidate variables, the four strongest predictors for 30-day mortality were included in the CLIP score (cystatin C, lactate, interleukin-6, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide). The score was well calibrated and yielded high c-statistics of 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-0.86] in internal validation, 0.82 (95% CI 0.75-0.89) in internal-external (temporal) validation, and 0.73 (95% CI 0.65-0.81) in external validation. Notably, it outperformed the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II and IABP-SHOCK II risk score in prognostication (0.83 vs 0.62; P < 0.001 and 0.83 vs. 0.76; P = 0.03, respectively).

Conclusions : A biomarker-only score for 30-day mortality risk stratification in infarct-related CS was developed, extensively validated and calibrated in a prospective cohort of contemporary patients with CS after AMI. The CLIP score outperformed other clinical scores and may be useful as an early decision tool in CS.

Keywords: Biomarker; Myocardial infarction; Prognosis; Score; Cardiogenic shock.

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01927549
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00491036