Background: In September 2018, pharmacy antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) services were expanded to include weekends at this academic medical center. Activities performed by AMS pharmacists on the weekends include blood culture rapid diagnostic (RDT) review, antiretroviral therapy (ART) review, prospective audit and feedback (PAF) utilizing clinical decision support, vancomycin dosing, and operational support. The purpose of this study was to assess the operational and clinical impact of these expanded AMS services.
Methods: This single-center, quasi-experimental study included data from weekends before (9/2017-11/2017) and after (9/2018-11/2018) implementation. The descriptive primary outcome was the number of activities completed for each AMS activity type in the post-implementation group only. Secondary outcomes were time to AMS opportunity resolution, time to escalation or de-escalation following PAF or RDT alert, time to resolution of miscellaneous AMS related opportunities, length of stay (LOS), and antimicrobial use outcomes.
Results: During the post-implementation period 1258 activities were completed, averaging 97/weekend. Inclusion criteria for time to resolution outcomes were met by 72 patients pre-implementation and 59 patients post. The median (IQR) time to AMS opportunity resolution decreased from 18.5 hours pre-intervention (7.7-35.7) to 8.5 hours post-intervention (IQR 1.8-14.0), p < 0.01. Time to escalation was 11.6 hours compared to 1.7 hours (p = 0.1), de-escalation 16.7 hours compared to 10.8 hours (p = 0.03), and miscellaneous opportunity 40.8 hours compared to 13.2 hours (p = 0.01). No differences were observed in LOS or antimicrobial use outcomes.
Conclusion: Presence of pharmacist-driven weekend AMS services significantly reduced time to resolution of AMS opportunities. These data support the value of weekend AMS services.
Keywords: antimicrobial stewardship; infectious diseases; pharmacy; weekend.