Fertility and pregnancy outcome in gestational trophoblastic disease

Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2021 Mar;31(3):399-411. doi: 10.1136/ijgc-2020-001784.


The aim of this review is to provide an overview of existing literature and current knowledge on fertility rates and reproductive outcomes after gestational trophoblastic disease. A systematic literature search was performed to retrieve all available studies on fertility rates and reproductive outcomes after hydatidiform mole pregnancy, low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, high- and ultra-high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, and the rare placental site trophoblastic tumor and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor forms of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. The effects of single-agent chemotherapy, multi-agent including high-dose chemotherapy, and immunotherapy on fertility, pregnancy wish, and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated and summarized. After treatment for gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, most, but not all, women want to achieve another pregnancy. Age and extent of therapy determine if there is a risk of loss of fertility. Single-agent treatment does not affect fertility and subsequent pregnancy outcome. Miscarriage occurs more often in women who conceive within 6 months of follow-up after chemotherapy. Multi-agent chemotherapy hastens the natural menopause by three years and commonly induces a temporary amenorrhea, but in young women rarely causes permanent ovarian failure or infertility. Subsequent pregnancies have a high chance of ending with live healthy babies. In contrast, high-dose chemotherapy typically induces permanent amenorrhea, and no pregnancies have been reported after high-dose chemotherapy for gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Immunotherapy is promising and may give better outcomes than multiple schedules of chemotherapy or even high-dose chemotherapy. The first pregnancy after immunotherapy has recently been described. Data on fertility-sparing treatment in placental site trophoblastic tumor and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor are still scarce, and this option should be offered with caution. In general, patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia may be reassured about their future fertility and pregnancy outcome. Detailed registration of high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia is still indispensable to obtain more complete data to better inform patients in the future.

Keywords: gestational trophoblastic disease; hydatidiform mole; neoplastic; placental site; pregnancy complications; trophoblastic neoplasms; trophoblastic tumor.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects
  • Female
  • Fertility Preservation / methods*
  • Humans
  • Hydatidiform Mole / therapy*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome / epidemiology
  • Uterine Neoplasms / therapy*


  • Antineoplastic Agents