Considering sex as a biological variable will require a global shift in science culture

Nat Neurosci. 2021 Apr;24(4):457-464. doi: 10.1038/s41593-021-00806-8. Epub 2021 Mar 1.


For over half a century, male rodents have been the default model organism in preclinical neuroscience research, a convention that has likely contributed to higher rates of misdiagnosis and adverse side effects from drug treatment in women. Studying both sexes could help to rectify these public health problems, but incentive structures in publishing and career advancement deter many researchers from doing so. Moreover, funding agency directives to include male and female animals and human participants in grant proposals lack mechanisms to hold recipients accountable. In this Perspective, we highlight areas of behavioral, cellular and systems neuroscience in which fundamental sex differences have been identified, demonstrating that truly rigorous science must include males and females. We call for a cultural and structural change in how we conduct research and evaluate scientific progress, realigning our professional reward systems and experimental standards to produce a more equitable, representative and therefore translational body of knowledge.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomedical Research*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Models, Animal*
  • Sex Characteristics*