Prompt and adequate treatment of human brucellosis continues to be the most important strategy in its management, as eradication of animal brucellosis is not possible so far, and there is no adequate vaccine for humans. The goal of antibrucellar treatment is to alleviate and shorten the symptomatic period and reduce complications, relapses, and chronicity. Contemporary trends in the treatment of human brucellosis are postulated on the ability of Brucellae to persist in host macrophages through the inhibition of phagolysosome fusion and to survive for prolonged periods intracellularly without restricting basic cellular functions. As a result of this and despite satisfactory antibiotic treatment, relapses and therapeutical failures are inevitable to a certain degree. The current principles for the treatment of brucellosis advocate for a long enough treatment duration combined with antimicrobial regimens that possess activity in the intracellular acidic environment. In the future, other antimicrobial agents, immunomodulation, decrease in the intracellular acidic environment, or development of agents that would act on well-defined molecular bacterial targets, might be incorporated to improve the therapeutical effects.
Keywords: Brucellosis; Outcome; Relapse; Treatment.
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