Urinary Biomarkers in Tumors: An Overview

Methods Mol Biol. 2021;2292:3-15. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-1354-2_1.


Recent reports suggest that urine is a useful noninvasive tool for the identification of urogenital tumors, including bladder, prostate, kidney, and other nonurological cancers. As a liquid biopsy, urine represents an important source for the improvement of new promising biomarkers, a suitable tool to identify indolent cancer and avoid overtreatment. Urine is enriched with DNAs, RNAs, proteins, circulating tumor cells, exosomes, and other small molecules which can be detected with several diagnostic methodologies.We provide an overview of the ongoing state of urinary biomarkers underlying both their potential utilities to improve cancer prognosis, diagnosis, and therapeutic strategy and their limitations.

Keywords: Biomarker; Exosome; Liquid biopsy; Nonurological cancers; Urine; Urological cancers; miRNA; ucfDNA.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / urine*
  • Cell-Free Nucleic Acids / urine
  • Exosomes / pathology
  • Humans
  • Liquid Biopsy / methods
  • Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • Neoplasms / urine*
  • Nucleic Acids / urine
  • Proteins
  • Proteinuria / diagnosis
  • Proteinuria / pathology
  • Proteinuria / urine
  • Urinalysis / methods


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Cell-Free Nucleic Acids
  • Nucleic Acids
  • Proteins