Liquid biopsy is gaining importance in the context of analysis of circulating subcellular components, such as exosomes and nucleic acids, and the investigation of biological fluids is increasing because they express features common to the tissue of origin. Particularly, urine has become one of the most attractive biofluids in clinical practice due to its easy collection approach, its availability of large quantities, and its noninvasiveness. Furthermore, a peculiarity is that, compared to serum or plasma, urine is characterized by a simpler composition that improves isolation and identification of biomarkers. Recent studies have been associated with the investigation of mRNAs and microRNAs as potential noninvasive cancer biomarkers in urine, and to date, several approaches for isolating and measuring urinary nucleic acids have been established, despite still developing. This chapter aims at giving some main published evidences on urinary microRNAs and mRNAs, with the intent to consider their potential translational use in clinical practice.
Keywords: Cancer; Diagnosis; Urine; mRNAs; microRNAs.