Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that impairs mental ability development and interrupts neurocognitive function. This neuropathological condition is depicted by neurodegeneration, neural loss, and development of neurofibrillary tangles and Aβ plaques. There is also a greater risk of developing AD at a later age for people with cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and diabetes. In the biomedical sciences, effective treatment for Alzheimer's disease is a severe obstacle. There is no such treatment to cure Alzheimer's disease. The drug present in the market show only symptomatic relief. The cause of Alzheimer's disease is not fully understood and the blood-brain barrier restricts drug efficacy are two main factors that hamper research. Stem cell-based therapy has been seen as an effective, secure, and creative therapeutic solution to overcoming AD because of AD's multifactorial nature and inadequate care. Current developments in nanotechnology often offer possibilities for the delivery of active drug candidates to address certain limitations. The key nanoformulations being tested against AD include polymeric nanoparticles (NP), inorganic NPs and lipid-based NPs. Nano drug delivery systems are promising vehicles for targeting several therapeutic moieties by easing drug molecules' penetration across the CNS and improving their bioavailability. In this review, we focus on the causes of the AD and their treatment by different approaches.
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase; Alzheimer’s disease; Amyloid beta protein; Biomarker; Clinical trial; Molecular target; Nanoparticle; Stem cell.
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