Delirium in older patients undergoing aortic valve replacement: incidence, predictors, and cognitive prognosis

BMC Geriatr. 2021 Mar 2;21(1):153. doi: 10.1186/s12877-021-02100-5.

Abstract

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is increasingly performed in frail older patients who were previously ineligible for a standard surgical procedure. The objectives of this study are to determine delirium incidence, predictors, and relationship with cognitive performance at 3-month follow-up in older patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR).

Methods: Patients (N = 93) aged 70 years and older, undergoing transcatheter (TAVR, N = 66) or surgical (SAVR, N = 27) aortic valve replacement in an academic medical center were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Delirium was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) on postoperative days 1, 2, 3, and 7. Data on patients' socio-demographics, functional status (including instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and surgical risk scores (including Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) risk score), were collected at baseline. Cognitive status was assessed with the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) at baseline and 3 months after AVR.

Results: Delirium occurred in 21 (23%) patients, within the first three postoperative days in 95% (20/21) of the cases. Delirium incidence was lower in TAVR (13/66 = 20%) than SAVR (8/27 = 30%) patients, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = .298). Patients with delirium had lower baseline cognitive performance (median MMSE score 27.0 ± 3.0 vs 28.0 ± 3.0, p = .029), lower performance in IADL (7.0 vs 8.0, p = .038), and higher STS risk scores (4.7 ± 2.7 vs 2.9 ± 2.3, p = .020). In multivariate analyses, patients with intermediate (score > 3 to ≤8) and high (score > 8) STS risk scores had 4.3 (95%CI 1.2-15.1, p = .025) and 16.5 (95%CI 2.0-138.2, p = .010), respectively, higher odds of incident delirium compared to patients with low (score ≤ 3) STS risk scores. At 3-month follow-up (N = 77), patients with delirium still had lower MMSE score (27.0 ± 8.0 vs 28.0 ± 2.0, p = .007) but this difference did not remain significant once adjusting for baseline MMSE (β-coefficient 1.11, 95%CI [- 3.03-0.80], p = .248).

Conclusions: Delirium occurred in about one in five older patients undergoing AVR, almost essentially within the first three postoperative days. Beside cognitive performance, STS risk score could enhance the identification of high-risk older patients to better target preventative interventions.

Keywords: Aortic stenosis; Delirium; Society of thoracic surgeons risk score; Surgical aortic valve replacement; Transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aortic Valve / surgery
  • Cognition
  • Delirium* / diagnosis
  • Delirium* / epidemiology
  • Delirium* / etiology
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome