Calcium, Phosphorus, and Vitamin D in Dogs and Cats: Beyond the Bones

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2021 May;51(3):623-634. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2021.01.003. Epub 2021 Feb 27.


Calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D are nutrients that play a key role in maintaining normal organ, cell, and tissue function. Much is known about their role in bone metabolism, but these nutrients are also important in renal health, urinary tract disease, and multiple other organ systems. It is nutritionally important to meet the physiologic requirements for each of these nutrients, but the interplay between them should also be considered.

Keywords: Cancer; Gastrointestinal; Metabolism; Renal; Urinary tract.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calcium
  • Cat Diseases*
  • Cats
  • Dog Diseases* / drug therapy
  • Dogs
  • Phosphorus
  • Vitamin D


  • Vitamin D
  • Phosphorus
  • Calcium