Cardiovascular, Renal, and Metabolic Outcomes of Dapagliflozin Versus Placebo in a Primary Cardiovascular Prevention Cohort: Analyses From DECLARE-TIMI 58

Diabetes Care. 2021 May;44(5):1159-1167. doi: 10.2337/dc20-2492. Epub 2021 Mar 2.


Objective: International guidelines propose prescribing sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors to patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) as secondary prevention in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or for primary prevention of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with multiple risk factors (MRF) for ASCVD. The current analyses expand on the cardiovascular renal and metabolic effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in MRF patients.

Research design and methods: In DECLARE-TIMI 58, 17,160 patients with T2D and MRF (59.4%) or established ASCVD (40.6%) were randomized to dapagliflozin versus placebo; patients were followed for a median of 4.2 years. The cardiovascular and renal outcomes in the MRF cohort were studied across clinically relevant subgroups for treatment effect and subgroup-based treatment interaction.

Results: Among patients with MRF, the reduction with dapagliflozin in risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure (CVD/HHF) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.84, 95% CI 0.67-1.04) and the renal-specific outcome (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.37-0.69) did not differ from that for patients with ASCVD (P interaction 0.99 and 0.72, respectively). The effect on CVD/HHF was entirely driven by a reduction in HHF (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.88). The benefits of dapagliflozin on HHF and on the renal-specific outcome, among the subset with MRF, were directionally consistent across clinically relevant subgroups. At 48 months, HbA1c, weight, systolic blood pressure, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio were lower with dapagliflozin versus placebo and estimated glomerular filtration rate was higher (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: In patients with T2D and MRF, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of HHF and adverse renal outcomes regardless of baseline characteristics. These analyses support the benefit of dapagliflozin for important outcomes in a broad primary prevention population.

Trial registration: NCT01730534.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Benzhydryl Compounds / therapeutic use
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / prevention & control
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / drug therapy
  • Glucosides / adverse effects
  • Heart Failure*
  • Humans
  • Primary Prevention
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Glucosides
  • dapagliflozin

Associated data

  • figshare/10.2337/figshare.13692655