Precursor-targeted immune-mediated anemia in a dog with a stage IV mast cell tumor and bone marrow infiltration

Vet Clin Pathol. 2021 Mar;50(1):151-157. doi: 10.1111/vcp.12982. Epub 2021 Mar 2.


A 12-year-old spayed female Shiba Inu dog was referred to our hospital for a suspected mast cell tumor (MCT) of the bone marrow (BM). Laboratory abnormalities included severe nonregenerative anemia (packed cell volume or PCV: 12.5%; reference interval (RI): 37.3-61.7%; reticulocytes: 35.1 × 103 /µL; RI: 10-110 × 103 /µL), and a few mast cells were visualized in the blood smear examination. The BM was hypercellular with hematopoietic cells, a decreased myeloid:erythroid (M:E) ratio (0.77; RI, 0.9-1.8), and no dysplastic hematopoietic cells. Mast cells accounted for 11.5% of the total nucleated BM cells. Neoplastic mast cells and histiocytes phagocytizing erythroid progenitor cells were occasionally noted. The dog was diagnosed with precursor-targeted immune-mediated anemia (PIMA) concurrent and a stage IV MCT infiltrating the BM. Multimodal treatment included toceranib, imatinib, vinblastine, lomustine (CCNU), prednisolone, cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and a blood transfusion. The dog died due to MCT progression lasting 139 days after the initial BM examination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a dog presenting with PIMA and a stage IV MCT infiltrating the BM.

Keywords: NRIMA; c-kit exon 11 mutation; canine; immune-mediated hemolytic anemia; ineffective erythropoiesis; rubriphagocytosis.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Anemia* / veterinary
  • Animals
  • Bone Marrow
  • Dog Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Dogs
  • Female
  • Mast Cells
  • Neoplasms* / veterinary