Automated Laboratory Growth Assessment and Maintenance of Azotobacter vinelandii

Curr Protoc. 2021 Mar;1(3):e57. doi: 10.1002/cpz1.57.


Azotobacter vinelandii (A. vinelandii) is a commonly used model organism for the study of aerobic respiration, the bacterial production of several industrially relevant compounds, and, perhaps most significantly, the genetics and biochemistry of biological nitrogen fixation. Laboratory growth assessments of A. vinelandii are useful for evaluating the impact of environmental and genetic modifications on physiological properties, including diazotrophy. However, researchers typically rely on manual growth methods that are oftentimes laborious and inefficient. We present a protocol for the automated growth assessment of A. vinelandii on a microplate reader, particularly well-suited for studies of diazotrophic growth. We discuss common pitfalls and strategies for protocol optimization, and demonstrate the protocol's application toward growth evaluation of strains carrying modifications to nitrogen-fixation genes. © 2021 The Authors. Basic Protocol 1: Preparation of A. vinelandii plate cultures from frozen stock Basic Protocol 2: Preparation of A. vinelandii liquid precultures Basic Protocol 3: Automated growth rate experiment of A. vinelandii on a microplate reader.

Keywords: Azotobacter vinelandii; bacterial growth; microplate reader; nitrogen fixation; nitrogenase.

MeSH terms

  • Azotobacter vinelandii* / genetics
  • Laboratories
  • Nitrogen Fixation
  • Nitrogenase / metabolism


  • Nitrogenase