Effect of DLT-SML on Chronic Stable Angina Through Ameliorating Inflammation, Correcting Dyslipidemia, and Regulating Gut Microbiota

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2021 Feb 19;77(4):458-469. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0000000000000970.


Chronic stable angina (CSA) is caused by coronary atherosclerosis. The gut microbiota (GM) and their metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) levels are associated with atherosclerosis. Danlou tablet (DLT) combined with Salvia miltiorrhiza ligustrazine (SML) injection has been used to treat CSA. This study aims to investigate how DLT combined with SML (DLT-SML) regulates serum lipids, inflammatory cytokines, GM community, and microbial metabolite in patients with CSA. In this study, 30 patients with CSA were enrolled in the DLT-SML group, and 10 healthy volunteers were included in the healthy control group. The patients in the DLT-SML group were subdivided as the normal total cholesterol (TC) group and high-TC group according to their serum TC level before treatment. Blood samples were collected to investigate the (1) lipid content, including triglyceride (TG), TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, (2) fasting blood glucose (Glu), (3) inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and (4) gut-derived metabolite, including lipopolysaccharides and TMAO level. GM composition was analyzed by sequencing 16S rRNA of fecal samples. Results showed that DLT-SML significantly decreased serum TG, TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, IL-1β, TNF-α, and TMAO levels of patients with CSA. DLT-SML increased the abundance of Firmicutes and decreased Proteobacteria, which were significantly lower or higher in patients with CSA, respectively, compared with the healthy control group. In particular, DLT-SML increased the microbial diversity and decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of patients with high-TC. The abundance of Sarcina, Anaerostipes, Streptococcus, Weissella, and Erysipelatoclostridium was decreased, whereas Romboutsia, Faecalibacterium, and Subdoligranulum were increased by DLT-SML treatment in patients with CSA. These findings indicated that DLT-SML improved patients with CSA by ameliorating dyslipidemia profile, decreasing the circulating inflammatory cytokines, and regulating the GM composition and their metabolites.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Angina, Stable / blood
  • Angina, Stable / diagnosis
  • Angina, Stable / drug therapy*
  • Angina, Stable / microbiology
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / adverse effects
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Bacteria / drug effects*
  • Bacteria / metabolism
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • China
  • Cytokines / blood
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal / adverse effects
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal / therapeutic use*
  • Dysbiosis
  • Dyslipidemias / blood
  • Dyslipidemias / diagnosis
  • Dyslipidemias / drug therapy*
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / adverse effects
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Inflammation / blood
  • Inflammation / diagnosis
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Inflammation Mediators / blood
  • Lipids / blood
  • Male
  • Methylamines / metabolism
  • Middle Aged
  • Pyrazines / adverse effects
  • Pyrazines / therapeutic use*
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Biomarkers
  • Cytokines
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal
  • Hypolipidemic Agents
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Lipids
  • Methylamines
  • Pyrazines
  • danlou tablet
  • trimethyloxamine
  • tetramethylpyrazine

Associated data

  • ChiCTR/ChiCTR1900025601