1 From the Richard A. and Susan F. Smith Center for Outcomes Research in Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston (D.B.K.); the University of Washington School of Medicine and the Treuman Katz Center for Pediatric Bioethics, Seattle Children's Research Institute - both in Seattle (D.J.O.); the Moritz College of Law and College of Public Health, Ohio State University, Columbus (E.P.); and Stanford Health Policy and the Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford Law School; and the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies - all in Stanford, CA (M.M.M.).