Stroke Risk Factor Status and Use of Stroke Prevention Medications Among Hispanic/Latino Adults in HCHS/SOL

Stroke. 2021 Apr;52(4):1339-1346. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.031216. Epub 2021 Mar 4.


Background and purpose: We investigated the prevalence, awareness, and control of vascular risk factors (VRFs) and the use of antithrombotic and statin agents in HCHS (Hispanic Community Health Study)/SOL (Study of Latinos) participants with self-reported history of stroke or transient ischemic attack.

Methods: Sociodemographic characteristics, medications, and prevalence of different VRFs were recorded. VRF diagnoses and goals were based on the recommendations of professional organizations. Factors associated with optimal VRF control and use of antithrombotic and statin agents were investigated using multivariate logistic regression.

Results: The analysis included 404 participants (39% men). The prevalences of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were 59%, 65%, and 39%, respectively. Among those who met the diagnostic criteria for these diagnoses, the frequencies of awareness were 90%, 75%, and 83%, respectively. In participants who were aware of their VRFs, the prevalences of controlled hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were 46%, 32%, and 54%. Approximately 46% of the participants were on antithrombotics, 39% on statins, and 26% on both. Only 38% of those with atrial fibrillation received anticoagulation. In multivariate analyses adjusted for baseline sociodemographic characteristics, older age was associated with uncontrolled hypertension and diabetes. Residing in the United States for ≥10 years and born in the United States were associated with uncontrolled diabetes, female sex with uncontrolled dyslipidemia, and lack of health insurance with decreased use of statins and hyperlipidemia.

Conclusions: Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States have high prevalence and awareness of VRFs but low adherence to secondary stroke prevention strategies. Older adults, women, and uninsured people are vulnerable groups that may benefit from targeted interventions. Registration: URL:; Unique identifier: NCT02060344.

Keywords: ethnic groups; goals; risk factors; secondary prevention; stroke.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / complications
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Fibrinolytic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Humans
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Medication Adherence / statistics & numerical data
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Secondary Prevention* / methods
  • Secondary Prevention* / statistics & numerical data
  • Stroke / etiology
  • Stroke / prevention & control*
  • United States


  • Fibrinolytic Agents
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors

Associated data