A collective risk dilemma for tourism restrictions under the COVID-19 context

Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 3;11(1):5043. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-84604-z.


The current COVID-19 pandemic has impacted millions of people and the global economy. Tourism has been one the most affected economic sectors because of the mobility restrictions established by governments and uncoordinated actions from origin and destination regions. The coordination of restrictions and reopening policies could help control the spread of virus and enhance economies, but this is not an easy endeavor since touristic companies, citizens, and local governments have conflicting interests. We propose an evolutionary game model that reflects a collective risk dilemma behind these decisions. To this aim, we represent regions as players, organized in groups; and consider the perceived risk as a strict lock-down and null economic activity. The costs for regions when restricting their mobility are heterogeneous, given that the dependence on tourism of each region is diverse. Our analysis shows that, for both large populations and the EU NUTS2 case study, the existence of heterogeneous costs enhances global agreements. Furthermore, the decision on how to group regions to maximize the regions' agreement of the population is a relevant issue for decision makers to consider. We find out that a layout of groups based on similar costs of cooperation boosts the regions' agreements and avoid the risk of having a total lock-down and a negligible tourism activity. These findings can guide policy makers to facilitate agreements among regions to maximize the tourism recovery.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19 / economics*
  • Communicable Disease Control / economics
  • Communicable Disease Control / methods*
  • Disease Transmission, Infectious / economics
  • Disease Transmission, Infectious / prevention & control*
  • Humans
  • Models, Statistical
  • Pandemics / economics
  • Risk Factors
  • SARS-CoV-2 / pathogenicity
  • Tourism