Predictors of urosepsis in struvite stone patients after percutaneous nephrolithotomy

Investig Clin Urol. 2021 Mar;62(2):201-209. doi: 10.4111/icu.20200319.


Purpose: This study aims to identify clinical factors that may predispose struvite stone patients to urosepsis following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).

Materials and methods: A retrospective review was conducted on patients who received PCNL for struvite stones. The Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) criteria and quick-Sepsis Related Organ Failure Assessment (q-SOFA) criteria were used to identify patients who were at an increased risk for urosepsis. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exactness test, Wilcoxon rank test, and logistic regression.

Results: Chart review identified 99 struvite stone patients treated with PCNL. Post-operatively, 40 patients were SIRS positive (≥2 criteria) and/or q-SOFA positive (score ≥2). Using SIRS as an approximation for urosepsis, longer operative times (p<0.001), higher pre-operative white blood cell counts (p=0.01), greater total stone surface area (p<0.0001), and pre-operative stenting (OR, 5.75; p=0.01) were identified as independent risk factors for urosepsis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated pre-operative stenting (OR, 1.46; p=0.01) to be a risk factor. With q-SOFA, univariable analysis found that antibiotic use within 3 months prior to a PCNL (OR, 4.44; p=0.04), medical comorbidities (OR, 4.80; p=0.02), longer operative times (p<0.001), lengthier post-operative hospitalization (p<0.01), and greater total stone surface area (p<0.0001) were risk factors for urosepsis. Multivariate analysis revealed that bladder outlet obstruction (OR, 2.74; p<0.003) and pre-operative stenting (OR, 1.27; p=0.01) significantly increased odds of being q-SOFA positive.

Conclusions: Several risk factors for urosepsis following PCNL for struvite stones have been identified. These risk factors should be taken into consideration in peri-operative care to mitigate the risks of urosepsis.

Keywords: Nephrolithotomy, percutaneous; Quick-sepsis related organ failure assessment; Struvite; Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome; Urosepsis.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Calculi / chemistry
  • Kidney Calculi / surgery*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous*
  • Postoperative Complications / epidemiology*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sepsis
  • Struvite* / analysis
  • Urinary Tract Infections / epidemiology*


  • Struvite