Background: Inclisiran is a double-stranded small interfering RNA that suppresses proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) translation in the liver, leading to sustained reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other atherogenic lipoproteins with twice-yearly dosing.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to conduct a patient-level pooled analysis from 3 phase 3 studies of inclisiran.
Methods: Participants with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (ORION-9 [Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Inclisiran Treatment on Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) in Subjects With Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (HeFH)]), atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) (ORION-10 [Inclisiran for Participants With Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease and Elevated Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol]), or ASCVD and ASCVD risk equivalents (ORION-11 [Inclisiran for Subjects With ASCVD or ASCVD-Risk Equivalents and Elevated Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol]) taking maximally tolerated statin therapy, with or without other LDL-C-lowering agents, were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either inclisiran or placebo, administered by subcutaneous injection on day 1, day 90, and every 6 months thereafter for 540 days. The coprimary endpoints were the placebo-corrected percentage change in LDL-C level from baseline to day 510 and the time-adjusted percentage change in LDL-C level from baseline after day 90 to day 540. Levels of other atherogenic lipoproteins and treatment-emergent adverse events were also assessed.
Results: A total of 3,660 participants (n = 482, n = 1,561, and n = 1,617 from ORION-9, -10, and -11, respectively) underwent randomization. The placebo-corrected change in LDL-C with inclisiran at day 510 was -50.7% (95% confidence interval: -52.9% to -48.4%; p < 0.0001). The corresponding time-adjusted change in LDL-C was -50.5% (95% confidence interval: -52.1% to -48.9%; p < 0.0001). Safety was similar in both groups. Treatment-emergent adverse events at the injection site were more frequent with inclisiran than placebo (5.0% vs. 0.7%), but were predominantly mild, and none were severe or persistent. Liver and kidney function tests, creatine kinase values, and platelet counts did not differ between groups.
Conclusions: These pooled safety and efficacy data show that inclisiran, given twice yearly in addition to maximally tolerated statin therapy with or without other LDL-C lowering agents, is an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment to lower LDL-C in adults with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, ASCVD, or ASCVD risk equivalents.
Keywords: ASVCD; RNA silencing; inclisiran; lipid-lowering therapy; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
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