Helicobacter pylori induced reactive oxygen Species: A new and developing platform for detection

Helicobacter. 2021 Jun;26(3):e12796. doi: 10.1111/hel.12796. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Abstract

Background: Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Approximately 70% of cases are caused by a microaerophilic gram-negative bacteria, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which potentially infect almost 50% of world's population. H. pylori is mainly responsible for persistent oxidative stress in stomach and induction of chronic immune responses which ultimately result into DNA damage that eventually can lead to gastric cancer. Oxidative stress is the result of excessive release of ROS/RNS by activated neutrophils whereas bacteria itself also produce ROS in host cells. Therefore, ROS detection is an important factor for development of new strategies related to identification of H. pylori infection.

Methods: The review summarizes the various available techniques for ROS detection with their advantages, disadvantages, and limitations. All of the information included in this review have been retrieved from published studies on ROS generation and its detection methods.

Results: Precisely, 71 articles have been incorporated and evaluated for this review. The studied articles were divided into two major categories including articles on H. pylori-related pathogenesis and various ROS detection methods for example probe-based methods, immunoassays, gene expression profiling, and other techniques. The major part of probe activity is based on fluorescence, chemiluminescence, or bioluminescence and detected by complementary techniques such as LC-MS, HPLC, EPR, and redox blotting.

Conclusion: The review describes the methods for ROS detection but due to some limitations in conventional methods, there is a need of cost-effective, early and fast detection methods like biosensors to diagnose the infection at its initial stage.

Keywords: H. pylori; DNA damage; Host Cells; Pathogen; Reactive Oxygen Species; gastric Mucosal Cells.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Gastric Mucosa / metabolism
  • Gastric Mucosa / microbiology
  • Helicobacter Infections* / diagnosis
  • Helicobacter Infections* / metabolism
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Humans
  • Oxidative Stress*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species* / analysis
  • Reactive Oxygen Species* / metabolism
  • Stomach Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Stomach Neoplasms / microbiology

Substances

  • Reactive Oxygen Species