Ocular disorders originating in the retina can result in a partial or total loss of vision, making drug delivery to the retina of vital importance. However, effectively delivering drugs to the retina remains a challenge for ophthalmologists due to various anatomical and physicochemical barriers in the eye. This review introduces diverse administration routes and the accordant pharmacokinetic profiles of ocular drugs to aid in the development of safe and efficient drug delivery systems to the retina with a focus on peptidomimetics as a growing class of retinal drugs, which have great therapeutic potential and a high degree of specificity. We also discuss the pharmacokinetic profiles of small molecule drugs due to their structural similarity to small peptidomimetics. Lastly, various formulation strategies are suggested to overcome pharmacokinetic hurdles such as solubility, retention time, enzymatic degradation, tissue targeting, and membrane permeability. This knowledge can be used to help design ocular delivery platforms for peptidomimetics, not only for the treatment of various retinal diseases, but also for the selection of potential peptidomimetic drug targets.
Keywords: drug delivery; formulation; peptidomimetics; pharmacokinetics; retina.