Antibodies are a critical immune correlate of protection for rhinoviruses, particularly those antibodies found in the secretory compartment. For nonenveloped viruses such as rhinoviruses, antibody binding to regions of the icosahedral capsid can neutralise infections by a number of different mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to address the neutralising mechanisms of antibodies to rhinoviruses that would help progress vaccine development. At least five mechanisms of antibody neutralisation have been identified which depend to some extent on the antibody binding footprints upon the capsid. The most studied mechanisms are virion aggregation, inhibition of attachment to cells, and stabilisation or destabilisation of the capsid structure. Newer mechanisms of degradation inside the cell through cytoplasmic antibody detection or outside by phagocytosis rely on what might have been previously considered as non-neutralising antibodies. We discuss these various approaches of antibody interference of rhinoviruses and offer suggestions as to how these could influence vaccine design.
Keywords: antibodies; neutralisation; rhinovirus; vaccine.