Adjunctive Nutraceutical Therapies for COVID-19

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Feb 16;22(4):1963. doi: 10.3390/ijms22041963.


The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19), is a worldwide pandemic, as declared by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is a respiratory virus that infects people of all ages. Although it may present with mild to no symptoms in most patients, those who are older, immunocompromised, or with multiple comorbidities may present with severe and life-threatening infections. Throughout history, nutraceuticals, such as a variety of phytochemicals from medicinal plants and dietary supplements, have been used as adjunct therapies for many disease conditions, including viral infections. Appropriate use of these adjunct therapies with antiviral proprieties may be beneficial in the treatment and/or prophylaxis of COVID-19. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of nutraceuticals, such as vitamins C, D, E, zinc, melatonin, and other phytochemicals and function foods. These nutraceuticals may have potential therapeutic efficacies in fighting the threat of the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: antiviral therapy; novel coronavirus; nutraceuticals; pandemic; viral infection.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Ascorbic Acid / pharmacology
  • Ascorbic Acid / therapeutic use
  • COVID-19 Drug Treatment*
  • Dietary Supplements* / analysis
  • Functional Food / analysis
  • Humans
  • Melatonin / pharmacology
  • Melatonin / therapeutic use*
  • SARS-CoV-2 / drug effects
  • Vitamin D / pharmacology
  • Vitamin D / therapeutic use
  • Vitamin E / pharmacology
  • Vitamin E / therapeutic use
  • Vitamins / pharmacology
  • Vitamins / therapeutic use*
  • Zinc / pharmacology
  • Zinc / therapeutic use*


  • Antiviral Agents
  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E
  • Zinc
  • Melatonin
  • Ascorbic Acid